Ranka Lee: an Adoptee’s Discourse of Deviance (Macross Frontier 17 “Goodbye Sister’)

The common approaches to the fictional biography of Ranka Lee (Ranka Mei) involve either a dominant spotlight on her disposition and the resulting moé engendered both from viewers and characters within Macross Frontier; or a dressing down of her behavior in a manner of ethical tone of analysis, often driven by the shipping and love triangle dynamics. In both cases, a certain weakness of the narrative, the writing, is blamed. While I can agree to some extent with some of the ideas, this is not the point of interest here.

I’ve sometimes thought about how the characters in Macross Frontier would play out if they were in a seinen or josei show instead. It’s not such a far-fetched idea since I did enjoy Macross Plus as a teenager. One of the things I think would be interesting is a focus on Ranka’s background and her behavior as a result of it. There’s more to her than the rather weak amnesia angle.

What is there to our little Ranka? Let us inspect the elements of her background.

  • She is part-Zentraedi
  • The human part of her is East Asian (Chinese, probably)
  • Part of the alien part of her is related or wholly of the Vajra (a non-humanoid life form!)
  • She is orphaned at a very young age.
  • She is adopted by a single adult male.
  • The adoptive male set up the relationship as an older sibling, as opposed to a parent.
  • She has reached young adulthood, approximately 10 years under the care of her adoptive ‘parent.’

Ranka is a fruity salad of species and ‘ethnicity’ raised in a non-standard family structure due in part to her parents’/mother’s death and unorthodox ‘older brother’ parent (Ozma Lee).  This episode of Macross Frontier indulges much of the background of Ozma, fleshing out his relationships not only with Ranka, but also with his love interest Cathy Glass.

I’m looking at this background and at Ranka’s adolescence narrative in part through the work of lelangir, who wrote about the construction of (American) families via adoption (of Asian children), and the resulting discourse by these adoptees as a form of deviance — a social and self-critical differentiation from source and adoptive cultures.

His analysis used memoirs as the primary material. Ranka doesn’t have memoirs yet, but we are subject to her narrative as part of the whole of Macross Frontier, often privy to internal monologues in a way that memoir writers can never express (memories in real time). That said, Ranka never really spoke about her ethnicities (or species for that matter) nor made it an issue; but she were indeed in a more mature work, it’s possible that this could be a subject.

I cannot comment if the subject of multiple/dual ethnicities is an acceptable one in Japanese popular culture, but it is interesting to note that the actress and singer for Ranka, Nakajima Megumi is bi-ethnic: she is half-Filipino. Also interesting: last year the Japanese government granted full citizenship to Filipinos with a Japanese parent.

There is a significant number of Filipino kids with Japanese fathers here in the Philippines. My youngest brother is good friends with one, and that half-Japanese kid is very useful translating for when the pro Magic: the Gathering TCG players from Japan come over for the tour events and hang out with my brother and his crew of pro M:tG players. That kid was also very useful for translating Super Robot Wars α while my brother played it in real time.

These kids are most likely illegitimate, as their Japanese fathers are salarymen with families back home but had/have liaisons with Filipino women while posted here as expatriate workers. I won’t speculate on Nakajima Megumi’s background. I’m rather proud that she’s part-Filipina, while I don’t know how she personally feels about it. I can say though, that up until the turn of the millennium, Japan has been a steady employer of Filipino entertainers, most of them women. Here in the Philippines, these women have been derogatorily lableled Japayuki, in part due to their part-time or full-time tours as sex-workers in Japan.

Lelangir writes:

The primary objective of this paper will be to investigate the case study of interracial adoptees, out of which two forms of deviance arise.

The first is more historical – it is concerned with how interracial adoptees have been labeled as different, and subsequently how they have viewed themselves as different. […]

The first form of deviance is easier than the second to theorize upon. Interracial adoptees have been the subject of psychological and psychiatric work for a good portion of the 20th century and has roots and relations to Freudian psychoanalysis and attachment theory. Thus, the condition of being an interracial adoptee follows some points of Conrad’s typology of medicalized deviance: (1) there is expert control over the psychology of interracial adoptees which disregards the voices of individual experience as invalid or nonscientific; and (2) the psychology results of interracial adoption are individualized. If an interracial adoptee is depressed or has a bad relation with the adoptive parents, the problem is not seen to be within the institution of adoption but in the adoptee or in the parents. Here arises the myths of “love conquers all” or “love is colorblind,” or similar aphorismic tropes.

The second form of deviance is more complex – it is almost a type of “meta” form. Considering the historical trajectory we have just outlined in brief, the discourse of adoptees intrinsically arises from marginalized zones, that is, from “outside” the moral boundaries of dominant ideology. Overall, there are many obfuscating narratives which frame the critical narratives of adoptee as ungrateful, problematic, dangerous to dominant institutions, and thus deviant. This has as much to do with the spaces out of which critical narratives arise as it does the actual message of these narratives. In sum, this second form of deviance is about the interaction between discourses competing for dominance or even legitimacy.

In the narrative of Macross Frontier, and during this episode, Ozma’s ‘parenting’ is glorified. Ranka is shown in this episode as a maturing and well-adjusted adolescent at the verge of professional success. Her attachment to Ozma shown at the end is a result of a somewhat rocky beginning, and is credited to the persistence of Ozma in becoming a good parent. Thy aphorismic tropes “love conquers all” or “love is ‘species’ blind” arise here.

Ozma never made an issue about Ranka’s race or species — doubly significant, since the Zentraedi is a genetically violent race who obliterated most of the human population back in 2010. Perhaps the violence done by Ozma (by plain indifference or neglect) is the non-involvement of anything Zentraedi in Ranka’s upbringing. Granted, the Zentrans never had much of a culture in the first place, and what culture they did have, Ozma was of two minds: he was a fighter and respected Zentrans as fighters (he flies with Klan Klan and her team, and probably has done so with others earlier in his career), but wouldn’t want Ranka to have anything to do with fighting.

Ranka, near the end, would have more to say about the Vajra than she would ever talk about as a Zentraedi, despite her friendly relations with the Zentraedi Enka singer at Folmo mall, despite having a Zentraedi manager (Elmo Kridanik, until Grace O’Connor stepped in), and working at Folmo mall selling Zentraedi (7-color) carrots to uninterested Zentreadi children.

Lelangir’s concern in his paper lies more in the development of ‘Imagined Communities’ by adoptee intellectuals, who begin to see themselves apart from both their adoptive culture and source culture. When these people write, they are constructing an ‘artificial’ community, culture, and consciousness with people of similar backgrounds. One imagines how these people are considered ‘other’ or different by members of both adoptive and source ethnicities and cultures. It is easy to imagine how these people can form complexes about belongingness. He continues,

We must first clarify something – we need to avoid conflating the manifest effects of the material conditions of the imagined community with an individual’s consciousness of the imagined community. In other words, just because someone experiences racism doesn’t mean they consciously imagine themselves as part of a larger community. Rather, skin color, as a physical state, opens up the very likely possibility of racism and thus a desire to feel normal, to be connected with others similar to yourself. Just the thought “are there others like me?” indicates that an adoptee understands herself in an abstract sense, that there is a possibility people exist who share qualities with herself, and that these qualities can be divorced from localized physical situations – in other words, they can be imagined to exist in other people, and therefore, when asking “are there others like me?” we are beginning to imagining ourselves vis-à-vis and within an imagined community of similar individuals.

In the unsurprisingly innocent narrative of Macross Frontier, racism is almost entirely absent on a social level. In a militaristic level, Temzin — the rebel Zentraedi commander in Gallia IV told Alto, “The universe is too small for both our species!” This statement, uttered before Alto killed him, affected our protagonist and informed his thinking about the Vajra. Richard Bilrer, the enigmatic sponsor of the SMS, left Alto with the impression that the Zentran-human allied and combined races are in competition with the Vajra for the fold quartz. Alto is left thinking in terms of ‘it’s either them or us.’

De-individuation is an easy way to justify acts of cruelty, and even murder of others. Atrocities against humans throughout history had been informed by ethnocentric and xenophobic perspectives. Ultimately, Macross Frontier opposes these, and promotes love and harmony throughout the universe. What would be more interesting however, is if the narrative went into the social level of race conflict. Everything about Ranka’s childhood is incredibly rosy.

That said, there’s really no reason for the Frontier colony to not be near-utopic. There are multiple generations of humans and Zentradi removed from the Great War. My grandfather raised me on stories of the Second World War wherein the Philippines was occupied by the Japanese, and Manila was the most destroyed city in the whole war next to Warsaw. I never felt any resentment towards the Japanese growing up, nor did anyone I know in my generation and succeeding ones.

After all, mostly human colonies have already been governed by Zentraedi heads of state, most notably the Macross 7 Expeditionary Fleet. City 7 was presided over by Mayor Millya Fallnya Jenius, the first Zentradi to integrate with humans and the first (and most prolific) breeder of mixed-race girls. She had her run-ins with Zentraedi malcontents during her term, but after that incident there were no documented cases of discontent or conflict from the Zentraedi until the Gallia IV incident.

Klan Klan distanced herself from this faction; noteworthy because Klan is more integrated into the mixed society compared to the archaic organization of those stationed (and killed) in Gallia IV.

But to return to lelangir’s methodology, which is to read autobiographical works of adoptees for their respective commentary on their individuality and difference from both their source and adoptive races and cultures, we run into two problems. One, Ranka’s narrative isn’t autobiographical — in the sense that it contains a lot of introspection; two, she never really talks about race or culture. She never makes an issue of it at all.

If anything, she is a product and player of a monoculture that stands in place of the ruined cultures of the earth after the devastating Zentraedi attack of 2010. This is the culture founded and represented by Minmay. It is the culture that allowed for the assimilation or integration of the Zentraedi into the monoculture. It is the culture of the pop idol.

It is a culture that has very little memory outside its own beginnings. It remembers ‘love’ for Minmay, and perhaps even for the story of the Bird Human, and via the in-universe film Do You Remember Love? — the Protoculture. Other than this, there is some memory of Japan (of course), China — though in the form of Chinatown (perhaps the Yokohama or San Francisco version), and the United States of America via the city of San Francisco (which is a pervasive design motif, never more prominent than in the design of Frontier City). Other than this, it’s Minmay all the way.

Pre-Space War race and ethnicity no longer seems to matter, and the Zentraedi race/species dynamic is barely an issue. We don’t find purist factions of humans against Zentraedi, and there seems to be no discrimination regarding employment and career opportunities. Mylene Jenius was the first half-Zentraedi idol singer — no one seems immune to her winsomeness, so Ranka Lee already had a precedent.

Later, in the end Ranka explains the Vajra ‘culture’ to Alto, and I surmise the rest of the colony. It is interesting to note that she never claims to be part of this culture — the way I could say I’m part Chinese, despite her arguably ‘royal’ status within Vajra society. She is certainly an interesting case of a de-cultured individual; that is, she never feels that she has to identify strongly with, or differentiate herself from any culture within the show.

If anything, (pop) music, as a form of love, is promoted by and through Ranka, as some form of totalizing monoculture across the galaxy. This is highlighted not only by the eventual end of Macross Frontier, but also in the previous episode when Ranka is obviously reluctant to lend her song (Aimo) as a weapon to make the Vajra easier to shoot down.

So where’s the deviance? Where’s the deviation? They exist on the meta level. Ranka’s discourse of ‘love conquers all’ via singing is the propagation of a monoculture to rule them all. All previous cultures are reduced to sources of proof for this love grand narrative. While there is an overt live and let live agenda, there is a totalizing effect that installs a Minmay hegemony over the galaxy.

Further Reading

Sheryl, being an idol herself, is part of this monoculture dynamic (and so is Fire Bomber).
I got the  idea of monoculture in Macross from reading ExecutiveOtaku’s retro-blogging of Macross Zero (2010).
The effects on de-individuation on ethical behavior of anime characters [->]
lelangir. “The Interracial Adoptee Diaspora: Imagined Communities, Intellectuals and Autoethnography.” (Research Paper) Soc 160. Clark University. 10/22/09.
lelangir. “The (de)contstructing of families: adoptees and their discourse of deviance.” (Term paper proposal) Soc 263. Clark University. 10/30/09.

About ghostlightning

I entered the anime blogging sphere as a lurker around Spring 2008. We Remember Love is my first anime blog. Click here if this is your first time to visit WRL.
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18 Responses to Ranka Lee: an Adoptee’s Discourse of Deviance (Macross Frontier 17 “Goodbye Sister’)

  1. Crusader says:

    Hehe Minmay hegemony, bet you and your BRO Bilrer planned this all out. In Macross racism isn’t completely dead but socially unacceptable, though it can still have consequences like when Leon sacrifices the Zentradi Island to save the miclone ones, it made sense to mic-lone the Zentradi but his intentions were not free of malice.

    Ranka having more to say about the Vajra than the people who were her fans and who she counted among friends and family is rather telling. She felt plenty for the bugs but felt quite little in comparison to those around her. The way Ozma set himself up as Ranka’s relation would mean that she wouldn’t have the maximum respect for his wishes as siblings argue plenty and think nothing of it, arguing with one’s parent’s is a little bit tougher. The only family she remembered had caved into to her demands and actions, Ozma opposed Ranka’s idol and acting career but he caved in, perhaps Ranka pressed her luck too much when she tried convincing Alto-hime to conform to her movements after Michael died. Perhaps Ranka just wasn’t use to some one telling her definitively “no” and not back down over time.

    Japayuki probably won’t get much more respect even if Japan was taken out of the equation. It’s not as if sex-workers enjoy an esteemed position in society even less so I’d imagine in a country that is mostly Catholic with a little Islam mixed here and there.

    I sympathize with your lack of attachment to China, even when I went back to the motherland it felt more alien than it felt familiar I still have family there but my attachment to the country is rather weak due to ideological differences and my own stronger identification to my profession. I am not adopted so can’t say much about what lelangir wrote, I identify with a “dead” culture whose legacy is pretty much finalized and is not producing any new controversy.

    • Leon’s being a dick has less to do with racism, but I can see how he would value Zentraedi clones less than human descendants of clones. Ranka’s passion for the bugs is a role she plays in the narrative, so she can’t but seem insensitive to humans relative to her role of being Vajra queen. It’s a limitation of the narrative, really.

      Personally, I don’t like how it plays out. It’s something I’d have to ‘forgive’ or ‘get over’ from to enjoy the show further. What I mean is it’s hard to take how an otherwise immature character would act all wise at the same time. But I’m sure you know what I mean and probably feel stronger about these Ranka matters.

      You’re correct about Japayuki, but I suppose what’s so interesting about them is how these people became breadwinners for entire clans. And since our economy is propped up by some 6 million expatriates and their foreign currency remittances, the Japayuki presented a conundrum — how to lionize them without dealing with what they probably did in Japan.

      I don’t understand what you mean by ‘dead’ culture. I wasn’t raised Chinese, and I know many who are. They wouldn’t think of me as one of theirs. There were times that I was unhappy with this, but I’m alright for the most part.

      • Crusader says:

        While the narrative is not perfect, it just seemed as if Ranka consistently made bad decisions with out skipping a beat a few good ones mixed in might have helped redeem her. She acts consistently immature throughout the series, it just didn’t seems that she did much growing up at all. In the end she seemed to pretend that everything was back to normal despite the fact that her fans probably would not have been so delighted to hear that she made a more passionate argument for her pet Vajra than to the bugs to spare them further loss of loved ones.

        In the case of you Japayuki I can see the problem, but maybe the issue is trying to get them as well paying work that seems more socially acceptable. Fundamentally I’s have a problem if a close relation of mine were doing such things, it would motivate me more to try and make just as much if not more so that it need not occur. But money is the neccessary evil that we all have to live with.

        I identify with a Prussian cultural identity mostly as a outgrowth of my profession. Besides it fits in fine with my unrepentant militarism, monastic dedication to my MOS/Rate, adherence to order, fluid adaptability, and general disgust and hostility towards political systems.

        • More on Ranka as the series goes on and plays out…

          The interesting thing is that people wish they could go work in Japan now, but can’t. Japan has had a moratorium on Filipino entertainers for about a decade now. Since then I’ve met a few veterans, one a drag queen who delighted when ‘her’ pantsu got stolen (‘she’ was a classmate in grad school), and a cab driver who did small errands for yakuza and missed how easy it was to get laid because of all the lonely Southeast Asian chicks there (he said he was most popular with Thai).

          That’s an interesting set of qualities, given the military in itself is a political system. Don’t get me wrong, I’m not criticizing you! I grew up around soldiers all my life and married into a military family, and work for a highly militarized government authority. Political systems are indeed shitty, but since I’m not actively part of the solution, I try to limit my complaints about them.

  2. SpeedStriker says:

    But the problem is that the expansion of this Minmey hegemony is based on the fact that no other species encountered in the Macross universe has a real culture of their own. This is very convenient since once they are introduced to a culture of love and harmony, they will most likely adapt to it without much protest, and only minor annoyance.

    What would happen then, if the fleets were to encounter a race that does have a truly meta-physical and emotional culture that is based not on love and harmony but rather on extreme xenophobia and expansion of their own state? In this case, wouldn’t the winning culture be determined by the surviving race?

    • Einherjar says:

      I thought it was implied in Macross Dynamite 7 that the Human-Zentradi Alliance did meet at least one species with their own culture; the Zolan. Not much is known about them, but things might have ended up peacefully with them.

      • SpeedStriker says:

        Oh yeah, I forgot about them. But this seems like Macross’s tradition of always having one or two hints at the nature of the Protoculture than a more conclusive narration about the encounter itself though. As far as we know, there isn’t much that’s known about the Zolans, much less Human/Zentran’s encounter with them.

        • This has to do with a lot of limitations. It’s not easy to come up with cultures (in terms of the creative process), and it’s even tougher to ‘populate’ it with songs and performances and actual soundtracks and singers and the like. I mean, nobody listens to the radio in anime because it’s impossible to license every song that comes on.

          The culture within the human sphere itself is ‘unrealistic’ in that there are only one or two acts worth listening to at any given time. In our age, there are no more truly dominant acts like how The Beatles, Elvis, Madonna etc were in their time.

          Even with the wiping out of so many people, the fact that Kabuki is popular suggests that past culture is accessible and there are many people who’d produce works in the many cultural traditions (especially pop culture). It’s really quite impossible to portray this in a TV anime.

          That said, I do think that Macross does reduce culture to the current Minmay culture and that of the Protoculture. If DYRL is to be believed, even the Minmay culture is but a copy of the Protoculture. This makes it convenient for world building, as planets/cultures/races like Zola/Zolans can be eased in/introduced in a controlled manner.

          • Einherjar says:

            I’ve heard rumors that Michael Blanc could be half Zolan or Zentradi. However, I’ve also heard that Zolans are incompatible with humans, so who knows.

          • Same here. He isn’t Zentran, but has pointy ears, but then again he doesn’t have hairy arms. Maybe he just got the best of both kinds.

  3. 2DT says:

    Hum hum hum, this is very interesting indeed.

    If you don’t mind my beating a dead horse, the post-Minmay monoculture is also very like some popular interpretations of modern Japan: Constructed around idols, possessing incredible depth of feeling for flimsy objects of desire.

    >>Ranka, near the end, would have more to say about the Vajra than she would ever talk about as a Zentraedi, despite her friendly relations with the Zentraedi Enka singer at Folmo mall, despite having a Zentraedi manager (Elmo Kridanik, until Grace O’Connor stepped in), and working at Folmo mall selling Zentraedi (7-color) carrots to uninterested Zentreadi children.

    This in particular got me good. Cheers.

    • Hehe Minmay is one horse that’s never going to die in this blog ^_^

      I’ve never actually come across that interpretation, at least not the way you put it. That’s something that I can identify with very much. I mean, I do have incredible depth of feeling for the flimsiest things such as anime and manga, or the objects therein such as the characters, and/or individual fantasy robots.

      As I’ve mentioned to Crusader above, Ranka’s character doesn’t act like a believable person at all — even with the allowances for the fantasy setting and the show being anime. She’s immature the whole time, then her ‘role’ (as the narrative demands of her) requires her to be a sage about the Vajra. I exaggerate about the sage bit, but I do think that her sympathy and wisdom when it comes to the Vajra is disproportionate to all other aspects of her character.

      This could be chalked up to be just a counterpoint to the military appropriation of her singing and the Vajra mating song ‘Aimo,’ but I can’t say that the end result feels whole and complete.

      She could have had more of an impact regarding the issues I raised in this post when she entertained the Zentraedi in Gallia IV during and after her rescue of Alto (and Sheryl, back in episode 12). But this opportunity had to go in favor of forwarding the Ranka x Alto romance plotline.

  4. Swampstorm says:

    Interesting read.

    The issue of ethnicity would perhaps feature more prominently if she had a Zentradi parent; but she’s already one generation removed from the time when those struggles would have actually played out. In that sense, it’s not surprising that she feels more of a connection with the Vajra, who intrude more directly into her consciousness.

    But perhaps that’s also the writers’ intentions: by presenting Ranka as “quarter Zentradi”, they can fuel our cultural fetishism, without actively needing to engage with the issue of her ethnicity – monoculture presented as multiculture.

    Sheryl’s situation is similar in this sense. Strictly speaking, she has a multicultural background as well: her grandmother is Mayan (Mao), and she speaks and writes French (which perhaps makes her more intimately involved with her culture, as the song sung during the final episode of Macross Zero was in French). But like with Ranka, this features little in the development of her character aside from giving her a slightly exotic appeal.

    Season with a dash of culture, and serve!

    • Haha! I haven’t thought about Sheryl through so thanks for pointing these things out. In both cases there’s an adoption/orphan story and it kills me that I didn’t notice it. Sheryl would’ve made for an even more interesting case as her foster parent/guardian is none other than Grace, which should tie into some of the things I said in my post on the previous episode.

      In any case, the multicultural background makes for an interesting background, and this enough since the narrative isn’t really interested in making a story of this — yet.

  5. GLRockwell says:

    We can agree that Japanese absolutely hate Black People, however. I’m a Black American and I used to live in Japan. Japanese worship Whites and despise Blacks. Asians and Blacks are worlds apart and racially incompatible. If the Zentradi were dark-skinned, there would be no peace between them and humanity (which is represented as Whites, Japanese, and Chinese; no Blacks to be found). They get along and are added to the list of non-Black Gaijin that are capable of getting along and forming a collective. It is global non-Black supremacy (in Macross Frontier, it reaches to the corners of the universe).

    • I don’t really know about absolute hatred, but there is a non-black distaste for black, unless it’s played up for ‘exoticism’ LOL — and this is worldwide I think. Here in the Philippines, skin-whitening products are big business, and I think that says a lot.

      Bobby Margot and Claudia La Salle are both black (I’m very sure about Claudia) and as side characters go, she wasn’t trivialized relative to her skin color while Bobby was a twofer minority: Black and Gay, while a beloved character may offend some and is perhaps indicative of racial/gender attitudes. Even in Macross Plus there’s a (wise) black ‘sistah’ who bantered with Isamu and looked after him (in her way) and especially Myung.

      The commander of the proving grounds for the prototype variable fighters (Miller?) was black as well. He was gruff and tough, but generally positively portrayed.

      A more noticeable absence of black characters would be in the Gundam franchise (save maybe for the episodes in ZZ where it was based in Africa; the Z episodes in Kilimanjaro and Dakar had very few if at all black people present). And yes, as far as I know, there are no black Newtypes.

      • GLRockwell says:

        I see. Well, all the more reason why Blacks and non-Blacks should separate. There will always be a rift between us, and its best to leave it as it is and go about our separate ways. If we want Black characters, we should make our own entertainment completely controlled and designed by and for us.

        • First off, much respect.

          I don’t think I can agree. I like my diversity, especially if it isn’t forced. I never see positive portrayals of Filipinos in Western media. I don’t think I feel like I should complain. I don’t want anyone pandering to me that way. I think it’s patronizing and yucky.

          Japanese look down on us, the Chinese look down on us, Singaporeans look down on us. Mostly the ignorant ones are like that, because the ignorant Filipinos look down on everyone including themselves.

          And let me tell you. In the Philippines there are hundreds of minorities. HUNDREDS. Tribal folk, Muslims; MUSLIM TRIBAL FOLK, aboriginals, you name it. There are over 70 languages. You read that right. OVER SEVENTY.

          So there is a classist and racist thread too that runs all over the place among many and perhaps all of these people. The rich are lighter skinned and western-educated, if they aren’t Chinese. They are also almost always Christian (mostly Catholic).

          I think racism is never a good thing. However, being butthurt about it is not very productive at all. At university I wrote a scathing thesis: A Post-Colonial Reading of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Silmarillion. I practically called the dude a white supremacist. And it felt good defending the thesis against an Oxford Ph.D white guy on the panel.

          The thing is, it’s inauthentic. I love Tolkien and still do. His ignorance isn’t very different from a lot of other people’s, including the ‘chosen’ people of the Old Testament.

          I just feel that taking offense is a bigger sign of weakness, and to this I agree that you could make entertainment for yourselves. Though I must say that we Filipinos have been doing that for almost a hundred years. Your mileage may vary.

          All the best man. Thank you for engaging me in this discussion.

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